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Monday, December 19, 2011

National Medical Association (NMA)

National Medical Association
Formation1895
HeadquartersSilver Spring, Maryland
LocationUnited States
MembershipAfrican American Physicians
Official languagesEnglish
PresidentLeonard Weather, Jr.
Websitehttp://www.nmanet.org/
The National Medical Association (NMA) is the largest and oldest national organization representing African American physicians and their patients in the United States. The NMA is a 501 (c) (3) national professional and scientific organization representing the interests of more than 30,000 African American physicians and the patients they serve, with nearly 112 affiliated societies throughout the nation and U.S. territories. The National Medical Association has been firmly established in a leadership role in medicine. The NMA is committed to improving the quality of health among minorities and disadvantaged people through its membership, professional development, community health education, advocacy, research and partnerships with federal and private agencies. Throughout its history the National Medical Association has focused primarily on health issues related to African Americans and medically underserved populations; however, its principles, goals, initiatives and philosophy encompass all ethnic groups.

“Conceived in no spirit of racial exclusiveness, fostering no ethnic antagonism, but born of the exigencies of the American environment, the National Medical Association has for its object the banding together for mutual cooperation and helpfulness, the men and women of African descent who are legally and honorably engaged in the practice of the cognate professions of medicine, surgery, pharmacy and dentistry.”—C.V. Roman, M.D. NMA Founding Member and First Editor of the JNMA 1908[1]

Contents


In the late 1950s, the NMA took a more active interest in civil rights under the leadership of its president, T. R. M. Howard, a surgeon from Mississippi. In the months after his election as president, Howard had played a key role in the search for evidence and witnesses in the Emmett Till murder case and led the largest civil rights organization in the state, the Regional Council of Negro Leadership. In 1957, under his leadership, the NMA organized the Imhotep National Conference on Hospital Integration which publicized and challenged continuing hospital segregation in both the North and South.[2]

Mission

To advance the art and science of medicine for people of African descent through education, advocacy, and health policy to promote health and wellness, eliminate health disparities, and sustain physician viability.[3]
The NMA promotes the collective interests of physicians and patients of African descent and tries to carry out this mission by serving as the collective voice of physicians of African descent and a leading force for parity in medicine, elimination of health disparities, and promotion of optimal health.[4]

Founding

Since its founding, NMA has served as the conscience of the medical profession. The National Medical Association took the lead in the creation of the federal Medicare and Medicaid programs years ago. Recently, the NMA was at the forefront of the struggle to avert a national health calamity in the reformation of these programs.[5]

History, 1900-1950

The NMA, dedicated to promoting the interests of those of "African Descent," contributed to the national health insurance dialogue from 1900-1950. Despite its rather marginal size, starting in the mid-1910s, the NMA advocated compulsory health insurance. Primarily, the association sought any means that provided medical care for African Americans. As an association, however, it also sought to promote the interests of the African American physician him/herself. Indeed, given the prominent racist practices of the Jim Crow South as well as segregated medical facilities across the U.S., it was extremely difficult for African American physicians to find gainful employment and practice medicine.

From the mid 1910s to the late 1940s, the American Medical Association (AMA) acted as the mainstream medical profession's voice. Yet numerous African American doctors were unable to join the AMA due to the lack of county medical societies and/or because of local bigoted practices, thereby limiting the number of African American AMA members. To exacerbate matters further, the NMA's leadership continued to support compulsory health insurance while AMA members largely distanced itself from such a scheme due to the (a) red scare, (b) belief in U.S. health superiority to other nations with national health insurance schemes and (c) the argument that a national health insurance would potentially ruin the "sacred" practitioner-patient relationship. Struggling between providing medical care for African Americans as well as maintaining the voice of African American physicians, the NMA was internally divided on these issues from the late 1930s-early 1950s.

During this time period, the NMA leadership repeatedly stated their support for a national health insurance scheme through the Journal of the National Medical Association as well as newspapers like the Chicago Defender. At the same time, rank-and-file members, desirous to practice medicine, supported the AMA's proposals. Indeed, during the height of the health insurance debates from 1946-50, the AMA often sent guest speakers to the NMA's conferences. Such AMA officials promised the NMA membership in their ranks as well as the right to practice medicine. Yet the NMA's leadership largely resisted the AMA's efforts. NMA presidents like Drs. E. L. Robinson, C. Austin Whitter and J. G. Gathings opposed the AMA's proposals on the grounds that the AMA had previously excluded African American patients from their care as well as African American physicians from their ranks. Furthermore, the AMA's support of Abraham Flexner's Report of 1910 witnessed the closure of numerous African American and women hospitals across the country. How could, the NMA leadership argued, African American doctors support the AMA when the AMA was in fact the origin of some of African American's most severe issues (indeed, NMA member Dr. Cobb compared the AMA's tactics to the KKK during 1946-50).

By the early 1950s, the NMA still did not possess a consensual platform concerning health insurance. Internally torn about the best methods to promote their own professional ambitions as well as the interests of African American patients, the health insurance topic remained a divisive one. Still, members of the NMA offered resistance to the AMA's promotion of voluntary health insurance when few medical practitioners dared to.

NMA Convention and Scientific Assembly

Nearly every year since its founding in 1895, the NMA has held the Annual Convention & Scientific Assembly, which is regarded as the nation’s foremost forum on medical science and African American health. The NMA is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to sponsor continuing medical education.

Through the presentation of CME programs at the national and regional conventions as well as at state and local society meetings, NMA members are able to meet Category 1 requirements for the Physician’s Achievement Award of the NMA and the Physician’s Recognition Award of the American Medical Association (AMA). The NMA offers CME programs in 23 specialties — from Aerospace Medicine to Urology. Up to forty-five (45) of the 50 Category 1 credits required for licensure in 23 states can be earned at the NMA Annual Convention and Scientific Assembly alone.[6]

Program Awareness

The NMA has conducted national consumer awareness programs in cancer, women’s health, radon, secondhand smoke, smoking cessation and immunizations. Further, the work of the NMA and its members has received national exposure on NBC, ABC, FOX and CNN television stations, as well as numerous radio and major print media each year.[7]

References

  1. ^ Overview National Medical Association retrieved 2010-07-21
  2. ^ David T. Beito and Linda Royster Beito, Black Maverick: T.R.M. Howard's Fight for Civil Rights and Economic Power (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009), 132-35, 157-58.
  3. ^ Introduction National Medical Association retrieved 2010-07-21
  4. ^ Introduction National Medical Association retrieved 2010-07-21
  5. ^ History National Medical Association retrieved 2010-07-21
  6. ^ Benefits of Membership at the NMA National Medical Association retrieved 2010-07-21
  7. ^ Benefits of Membership at the NMA National Medical Association retrieved 2010-07-21

External links

HBCUs: Education Contracts and Grant Opportunities

Contracts and Grants—White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

·         The American Educational Research Association (AERA) Grants Program is accepting proposals for its two research initiatives, with a deadline of September 1, 2011.
AERA Dissertation Grants. AERA provides dissertation support for advanced doctoral students to undertake doctoral dissertations using data from the large-scale national or international data sets supported by the NCES, NSF, and other federal agencies. Applications are encouraged from a variety of disciplines, such as but not limited to, education, sociology, economics, psychology, demography, statistics, and psychometrics. The selection process is competitive. The next application deadline is
September 1, 2011.

AERA Research Grants. AERA provides small grants for faculty members, postdoctoral researchers, and other doctoral-level scholars to undertake quantitative research using data from the large-scale national or international data sets supported by the NCES, NSF, and other federal agencies. Applications are encouraged from a variety of disciplines, such as but not limited to, education, sociology, economics, psychology, demography, statistics, and psychometrics. The selection process is competitive. The next application deadline is September 1, 2011.

For further information about AERA and the Grants Program, visit the AERA website at www.aera.net and click on “Fellowships and Grants” and then “AERA Grants Program” on the left-hand side. You may also contact Mr. Ming Lowe at grantsprogram@aera.net or (202) 238-3200, ext. 227.

·         Minority Serving Institutions Program Funding Opportunity Announcement Solicitation Number: SBCR-FN-0511-MSIP02
This Funding Opportunity Announcement is issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Small Business and Civil Rights to fund Minority Serving Institutions' programs and activities, projects, symposiums, and training for the exchange and transfer of knowledge and skills relevant to nuclear safety, security, environmental protection, or any other fields the Commission deems critical to its mission.
To take advantage of this opportunity, applicants have to submit funding applications through http://www.grants.gov by local time (organization/institution's time zone) on the closing date of Monday, August 8, 2011.

·         National Endowment for the Humanities' Grants for grants for Historically Black Colleges and Universities. The National Endowment for the Humanities offers grants of up to $100,000 for projects designed to strengthen and enrich humanities education and scholarship at HBCUs. These projects may create opportunities for faculty members to study together while improving their capacity to teach the humanities; help faculty members and administrators develop new humanities programs; help institutions take advantage of humanities resources, especially in the digital humanities; enhance or develop areas of basic need in an institution's core humanities programs; or build ties among faculty at more than one institution. Applications for projects in all humanities disciplines are welcome and will receive equal treatment in review. For more information on Humanities Initiatives at Historically Black Colleges and Universities, please visit http://www.neh.gov/grants/guidelines/HI_HBCU.html.
·         Federal Government Grants


The Request for Proposals to select University Transportation Centers has been posted on Grants.gov. The RFP may be viewed at this link:

http://www.grants.gov/search/search.do;jsessionid=FTMHTvnNLFfmTnGYn8PbHFtfSyHNwsnZGp2t2BKgQpfDywqkB6G5!746851664?oppId=108433&mode=VIEW

Internship & Fellowship Opportunities: White House Initiative on HBCUs

Internships and Scholarships—White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

Internships

·         The Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship
The Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship (MLEF) is a 10-week paid summer internship with opportunities in the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, for women and minority students who are currently enrolled in Science, Technology (IT), Engineering, and Math majors at an accredited college or university. Application deadline is
December 31, 2011. For more information and application materials, please visit www.fossil.energy.gov/education/lelandfellowships/index.html
·         Summer 2012 White House Internship Program application now open
The White House Internship Program's mission is to make the "People's House" accessible to future leaders from around the nation and cultivate and prepare those devoted to public service for future leadership opportunities. Application deadline:
January 22, 2012. For more information and application materials, please visit www.whitehouse.gov/internships
·         U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Summer 2012 Research Experiences
Undergraduates, Graduate Students, and Faculty
The DHS HS-STEM Summer Internship Program provides a 10-week summer research experience for undergraduate students majoring in homeland security related science, technology, engineering and mathematics (HS-STEM) disciplines. Students will have the opportunity to conduct research in DHS mission-relevant areas at federal research facilities located across the country. Participants receive a stipend of $500 each week plus transportation expenses to/from their internship location.
The DHS Summer Research Team Program for Minority Serving Institutions provides research opportunities to increase and enhance the scientific leadership at Minority Serving Institutions in research areas that support the mission and goals of DHS. The program supports research teams composed of a faculty member and up to two students (undergraduate or graduate level) for a 10-week summer internship doing research at a university-based DHS Center of Excellence. The award includes a stipend plus transportation expenses to/from the internship location.
·         ORNL/ORAU HBCU/MEI Faculty Summer Research Opportunities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Participants will hold summer appointments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory where they will become part of research teams investigating a range of important topics. 2011 Research Projects may be accessed at: http://www.orau.org/ornl/faculty/hbcu-mei-descriptions.htm. PDF (28K)
·         Federal Internship Directory
One of the best ways to gain experience and make connections within government is to intern with a federal agency. Information on many fellowships and internships available during the school year as well as the summer is available at: http://www.makingthedifference.org/federalinternships/search/srartRow/70

Fellowships

·         The Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is accepting applications for two new research fellowships.
o        Research opportunities for recent Ph.D. graduates...
The EERE Postdoctoral Fellowships support its mission in energy efficiency and renewable energy by offering recent Ph.D. recipients the opportunity to conduct applied research at universities, national laboratories, and other research facilities. Application deadline is
June 30, 2011. More information and application materials can be found at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/education/postdoctoral_fellowships/

o        Policy-related projects for Ph.D. scientists and engineers...The EERE Science and Technology Policy (STP) Fellowships will serve as the next step in the educational and professional development of scientists and engineers interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy policy. Selected applicants will be assigned to participate in policy-related projects at DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Washington, D.C. Applications will be accepted on a rolling basis. For more information and application materials, visit http://www1.eere.energy.gov/education/stp_fellowships.html

Applicants selected as Fellows may have the additional distinction of guiding the implementation of the new solar SunShot Initiative in the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program. The SunShot Fellows will have a key leadership role in beginning new research and development programs to achieve the goal of $1/W installed photovoltaics by 2020.

HBCUs: Presidential Proclamation. August 2011

THE WHITE HOUSE
Office of the Press Secretary
______________________________________________________________________
For Immediate Release                                                                                             August 31, 2009
 
 
NATIONAL HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES WEEK, 2009
- - - - - - -
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
A PROCLAMATION
 
For generations, education has opened doors to untold opportunities and bright futures. Through quality instruction and a personal commitment to hard work, young people in every part of our Nation have gone on to achieve success. Established by men and women of great vision, leadership, and clarity of purpose, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) have provided generations of Americans with opportunity, a solid education, and hope.
 
For more than 140 years, HBCUs have released the power of knowledge to countless Americans. Pivotal in the Civil Rights Movement, HBCUs offer us a window into our Nation's past as well as a path forward. Graduates of HBCUs have gone on to shape the course of American history—from W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington, to Langston Hughes and Thurgood Marshall. Today, in twenty States, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, these colleges and universities are serving hundreds of thousands of students from every background and have contributed to the expansion of the African American middle class, to the growth of local communities, and to our Nation's overall economy.
 
This week, we celebrate the accomplishments of HBCUs and look to the future with conviction and optimism. These institutions will play a key role in reaching our ambitious national education goals, including having the highest proportion of college graduates in the world by 2020. As our Nation strives toward this goal, we invite HBCUs to employ new, innovative, and ambitious strategies to help the next generation of Americans successfully complete college and prepare themselves for the global economy. During National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, we recommit ourselves to never resting until equality is real, opportunity is universal, and all citizens can realize their dreams.
 
NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim August 30 through September 5, 2009, as National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week. I call upon public officials, educators, and all the people of the United States to observe this week with appropriate programs, ceremonies, and activities that acknowledge the tremendous contributions these institutions and their graduates have made to our country.
 
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this thirtieth day of August, in the year of our Lord two thousand nine, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth.
 
BARACK OBAMA

Visionary: CEO Bans Email

  CEO Bans Email


You heard right.

Eighteen months from now Thierry Breton, CEO of Atos—one of the largest information technology companies in the world, plans to have eliminated email as a communication and collaboration medium within his company. “If people want to talk to me, call or send me a text message,” said Breton. “Emails cannot replace the spoken word.”

According to an article written by Peter Allen in the Daily Mail,  Atos’ nearly 80,000 employees in 42 countries will have stopped using email eighteen months from now and will have replaced it with social media tools, the telephone and face-to-face conversations. Should you read this and assume that Breton is a 30-something young maverick trying to make a statement, you’d be wrong. The 56-year old chief executive is the former French finance minister who believes that only 20 out of every 200 emails received by his staff every day turn out to be important.

“[E]mail is no longer the appropriate tool,” said Breton. “It is time to think differently.”
Breton cites a number of examples of how email wastes time including:
  1. The “deluge” of information that plagues organizations
  2. The need to review “useless” emails and the time it takes to get focused again on important tasks
  3. The “pile” of email that employees end up sorting through after hours and the associated drain on employees’ personal time
What’s more “Mr. Breton pointed to a recent study by the business watchdog ORSE, which reads: Reading useless messages is terrible for concentration, as it takes 64 seconds to get back on the ball after doing so,” writes Allen. “Poorly controlled, the e-mail can become a devastating tool.”

Email is such an integrated and ubiquitous part of how most organizations get work done that I’m not sure completely eliminating it from our cadre of communication tools is practical, but I am very interested in Breton’s implication that social media-like instant messaging has the same value as “the spoken word.”
I’m a big fan of anything that will help teams collaborate more naturally—and social media tools have demonstrated they can do that. What’s more, I don’t think it’s only younger members of the workforce who are seeing the benefit of a social media approach (as the 56-year old Breton demonstrates).

Writing for The Telegraph, Henry Samuel writes, “The younger generation have already all but scrapped the email, with only 11 percent of 11 to 19 year-olds using it, according to silicon.fr, and online social networking is now more popular than email and search.”

Although I don’t want to be a focus group of one, I find myself using (and often preferring) a text message or other social-media interaction to email for some communication. I have a number of friends and colleagues around the world with whom a text or Facebook message is our preferred way to interact.
“Companies must prepare for the new wave of usage and behavior,” said Breton. I agree.

Thirty years ago, I would never have imagined how personal computers, smart phones and the Internet would have impacted my life. I must admit, I didn’t take email seriously when I first started using it . Now, I probably spend more time using my smart phone for email or to text than as a telephone—I don’t think I’m alone.

I agree with Mr. Breton, email is not the most efficient way for teams to collaborate. Everyone has experienced the email thread that gets lost or buried, the person that needed to be included on the thread that wasn’t or the critical email that was accidentally deleted. The social media metaphor demonstrates a lot of promise as a vehicle for collaboration (provided we can keep the conversation focused on work—projects, issues and tasks). However, saying that, the lines between an individual’s work life and personal life are becoming blurred.

Judging from her emails, I have a colleague who gets a lot of work done at 1:00 am, hours after I have climbed into bed and called it a day. If she checks her Facebook a couple of times during the day is that such a terrible thing? Although I might be asleep at 1:00 am, for me, work life and personal life have become “life.” I continue to check email, accomplish tasks and otherwise “work” when I have time off, while on vacation or even on the weekends if I need to. So maybe the need to obsessively worry about limiting social media access in the workplace doesn’t make much sense after all (but that’s a topic for discussion on another day).

The big question becomes, what can we do to make sure that work colleagues are part of an employees’ network and their work is part of why they are interacting.

I will be watching for an update eighteen months from now to see if Breton is successful. In the mean time, I don’t think we can ignore the power of a social media-like approach to team collaboration. Something Twitter-like or Facebook-like that makes projects, tasks and issues part of the discussion just makes sense to me.
Ty Kiisel, Contributor



Nonviolent Resistance

Nonviolent resistance



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


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Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. It is largely synonymous with civil resistance. Each of these terms ("nonviolent resistance" and "civil resistance") has its distinct merits and also slightly different connotations, which are briefly explored in the entry on civil resistance. The modern form of non-violent resistance as we know it today was popularised and proven to be effective by the Indian legend Mahatma Gandhi in his efforts to gain independence from the British.


The Salt March on March 12, 1930
Nonviolent resistance advocates include Leo Tolstoy, Mohandas Gandhi, Andrei Sakharov, Martin Luther King, Jr, Václav Havel, and Lech Wałęsa. In 2006 peace ethologist Judith Hand presented a strategy for abolishing war premised on using nonviolent resistance (A Future Without War: the Strategy of a Warfare Transition).

From 1966 to 1999 nonviolent civic resistance has played a critical role in 50 of 67 transitions from authoritarianism.[1] Recently, nonviolent resistance has led to the Rose Revolution in Georgia and the Orange Revolution in Ukraine. Current nonviolent resistance includes the Jeans Revolution in Belarus, the "Jasmine" Revolution in Tunisia, and the fight of the Cuban dissidents.


A demonstrator offers a flower to military police at an anti-Vietnam War protest in Arlington, Virginia, 21 October 1967

Many movements which promote philosophies of nonviolence or pacifism have pragmatically adopted the methods of nonviolent action as an effective way to achieve social or political goals. They employ nonviolent resistance tactics such as: information warfare, picketing, vigils, leafletting, samizdat, magnitizdat, satyagraha, protest art, protest music and poetry, community education and consciousness raising, lobbying, tax resistance, civil disobedience, boycotts or sanctions, legal/diplomatic wrestling, sabotage, underground railroads, principled refusal of awards/honours, and general strikes. Nonviolent action differs from pacifism by potentially being proactive and interventionist.

Contents

History of nonviolent resistance

DatesRegionMain ArticleSummaryRefs
BCE 470–391ChinaMohismThe Mohist philosophical school disapproved of war. However, since they lived in a time of warring polities, they cultivated the science of fortification.

around AD 26–36JudeaPontius PilateJews demonstrated in Caesarea to try to convince Pontius Pilate not to set up Roman standards, with images of the Roman emperor and the eagle of Jupiter, in Jerusalem (both images were considered idolatrous by religious Jews). Pilate surrounded the Jewish protesters with soldiers and threatened them with death, to which they replied that they were willing to die rather than see the laws of the Torah violated.

Before 1500–1835Chatham Islands, New ZealandMorioriThe Moriori were a branch of the New Zealand Māori that colonized the Chatham Islands and eventually became hunter-gatherers. Their lack of resources and small population made conventional war unsustainable, so it became customary to resolve disputes nonviolently or ritually. Due to this tradition of nonviolence, the entire population of 2000 people was enslaved, killed or cannibalized when 900 Māori invaded the island in 1835.

[2][3][4]
1819EnglandPeterloo massacreFamine and chronic unemployment, coupled with the lack of suffrage in northern England, led to a peaceful demonstration of 60,000–80,000 persons, including women and children. The demonstration was organized and rehearsed, with a "prohibition of all weapons of offence or defence" and exhortations to come "armed with no other weapon but that of a self-approving conscience". Cavalry charged into the crowd, with sabres drawn, and in the ensuing confusion, 15 people were killed and 400–700 were injured. Newspapers expressed horror, and Percy Shelley glorified nonviolent resistance in the poem The Masque of Anarchy. However, the British government cracked down on reform, with the passing of what became known as the Six Acts.

1834–38TrinidadEnd of Slavery in TrinidadThe United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, then the colonial power in Trinidad, first announced in 1833 the impending total liberation of slaves by 1840. In 1834 at an address by the Governor at Government House about the new laws, an unarmed group of mainly elderly Negroes began chanting: Pas de six ans. Point de six ans ("Not six years. No six years"), drowning out the voice of the Governor. Peaceful protests continued until the passing of a resolution to abolish apprenticeship and the achievement of de facto freedom.

[5][6]
1838USACherokee removalThe Cherokee refused to recognize the fraudulent Treaty of New Echota and therefore did not sell their livestock or goods, and did not pack anything to travel to the west before the soldiers came and forcibly removed them. That ended tragically in the Cherokee trail of tears.

1860–1894, 1915–1918New ZealandTainui-WaikatoMāori King Tāwhiao forbade Waikato Māori using violence in the face of British colonisation, saying in 1881 "The killing of men must stop; the destruction of land must stop. I shall bury my patu in the earth and it shall not rise again ... Waikato, lie down. Do not allow blood to flow from this time on." This was inspirational to Waikato Māori who refused to fight in World War I. In response, the government brought in conscription for the Tainui-Waikato people (other Māori iwi were exempt), but they continued to resist, the majority of conscripts choosing to suffer harsh military punishments rather than join the army. For the duration of the war, no Tainui soldiers were sent overseas.

[7]
1879–1880New ZealandParihakaThe Māori village of Parihaka became the center of passive resistance campaigns against Europeans occupying confiscated land in the area. More than 400 followers of the prophet Te Whiti o Rongomai were arrested and jailed, most without trial. Sentences as long as 16 months were handed out for the acts of ploughing land and erecting fences on their property. More than 2000 inhabitants remained seated when 1600 armed soldiers raided and destroyed the village.

[8][9]
1908–62SamoaMau movementNonviolent movement for Samoan independence from colonial rule in the early 20th century.

[10][11]
1919. 2.8, 3.1KoreaMarch 1st MovementThis movement became the inspiration of the later Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's Satyagraha—resistance and many other non-violent movement in Asia.

[12]
1919–22EgyptEgyptian Revolution of 1919A countrywide revolution against the British occupation of Egypt. It was carried out by Egyptians from different walks of life in the wake of the British-ordered exile of revolutionary leader Saad Zaghlul and other members of the Wafd Party in 1919. The event led to Egyptian independence in 1922 and the implementation of a new constitution in 1923.

1919–21IrelandIrish Non-cooperation movementDuring the Irish War for Independence, Irish nationalists used many non-violent means to resist British rule. Amongst these was abstention from the British parliament, tax boycotts, and the creation of alternative local government, Dáil Courts, and police.

[13]
1919–presentPalestineMubarak Awad
First Intifada
Third Intifada
Palestinian groups have worked with Israelis and foreign citizens to organize civilian monitors of Israeli military activity in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Peace camps and strategic non-violent resistance to Israeli construction of Jewish settlements and of the West Bank Barrier have also been consistently adopted as tactics by Palestinians. Citizens of the Palestinian village of Beit Sahour also engaged in a tax strike during the First Intifada.

1920–22British IndiaNon-cooperation movementA series of nationwide people's movements of nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience, led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) and the Indian National Congress. In addition to bringing about independence, Gandhi's nonviolence also helped improve the status of the Untouchables in Indian society.

1923GermanyThe Occupation of the RuhrWith the aim of occupying the centre of German coal, iron, and steel production in the Ruhr valley; France invaded Germany for neglecting some of its reparation payments after World War I. The occupation of the Ruhr was initially greeted by a campaign of passive resistance.

1930–34British IndiaCivil disobedience movementNonviolent resistance marked by rejecting British imposed taxes, boycotting British manufactured products and mass strikes, led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) and the Indian National Congress.

1933–45GermanyGerman ResistanceThroughout World War II, there were a series of small and usually isolated groups that used nonviolent techniques against the Nazis. These groups include the White Rose and the Confessional Church.

1940–43DenmarkDanish resistance movementDuring World War II, after the invasion of the Wehrmacht, the Danish government adopted a policy of official co-operation (and unofficial obstruction) which they called "negotiation under protest." Embraced by many Danes, the unofficial resistance included slow production, emphatic celebration of Danish culture and history, and bureaucratic quagmires.

1940–45NorwayNorwegian resistance movementDuring World War II, Norwegian civil disobedience included preventing the Nazification of Norway's educational system, distributing of illegal newspapers, and maintaining social distance(an "ice front") from the German soldiers.

1942British IndiaQuit India MovementThe Quit India Movement (Bharat Chhodo Andolan or the August Movement) was a civil disobedience movement launched in India in August 1942 in response to Mohandas Gandhi's call for immediate independence.
1945–71South AfricaDefiance Campaign
Internal resistance to South African apartheid
The ANC and allied anti-apartheid groups initially carried out non-violent resistance against pro-racial segregation and apartheid governments in South Africa.
1946–1958Territory of HawaiiHawaii Democratic Revolution of 1954Following World War II, general strikes were initiated by the large working poor against racial and economic inequality under Hawaii's plantation economy. Movement members took over most of the government in 1954 and the State of Hawaii was established in 1959.

1955–68USAAfrican-American Civil Rights Movement
Chicano Civil Rights Movement
Mass protest in the United States
Tactics of nonviolent resistance, such as bus boycotts, freedom rides, sit-ins and mass demonstrations, were used during the African American Civil Rights Movement. This movement succeeded in bringing about legislative change, and making separate seats, drinking fountains, and schools for African Americans illegal.

[14][15]
1957–presentUSACommittee for Non-Violent ActionAmong the most dedicated to nonviolent resistance against the US arsenal of nuclear weapons has been the Plowshares Movement, consisting largely of Catholic priests, such as Dan Berrigan, and nuns. Since the first Plowshares action in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania during the autumn of 1980, more than 70 of these actions have taken place.

[16][17][18]
1959–presentCubaCuban opposition since 1959There have been many nonviolent activists in opposition to Cuba's authoritarian regime. Among these are Pedro Luis Boitel (1931–1972), Guillermo Fariñas Hernández ("El Coco"), and Jorge Luis García Pérez (known as Antúnez), all of whom have performed hunger strikes.[19][20][21]
February 11, 1967USALos Angeles Black Cat Protest(1), Homosexual Bar and Site of Civil Resistance to Heightened Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) Raids against Homosexual Establishments throughout the City, especially in the Homosexual Quarter known as Sunset Junction(2) District/East Hollywood An Historic Cultural Monument, City of Los Angeles, recognized as a site of Peaceful Civil Resistance in the struggle for Homosexual Civil Rights in the United States. The standoff is significant in that it occurred a year prior to the 1968 Stonewall Riots in New York. The Stonewall Bar in the Greenwich Village section of Manhattan was listed to the National Register of Historic Places in 2001.A tense standoff and potential riot between Hundreds of LAPD Riot Gear laden Police Officers, who were determined to quell the swelling crowds that exceeded four hundred Homosexual citizens, was averted after a last minute plea from then new Governor Ronald Reagan, via an openly Gay Republican Judicial Appointee who acted as a personal envoy of the Governor to LAPD Commanders at the site of the Standoff, was accepted, and a stand down order given which ordered the Hundreds of LAPD Officers Present to Cease and Desist from further unprovoked harassment of Homosexuals in Los Angeles for decades. The plea was successfully communicated and accepted by the LAPD hierarchy, and represented the first time that a stand down order was given by the LAPD, and was the last time until 2001, that the Los Angeles Police Department would engage in raiding an establishment, or public assembly of Homosexuals in America's 2nd largest City, for decades. The Hundreds who gathered to peacefully protest unwarranted raids, often violent, against Gay and Lesbian meeting sites in Los Angeles, observed a rare experience of success in the struggle for Homosexual Civil Rights. Sadly, Civil Rights still not allowed under Federal and State Laws of the United States to this date.Black Cat Protest (Now LeBar, City of Los Angeles, Historic Cultural Monument
Resistance to LAPD Raids Against Homosexuals| year = 2009 |
  1. 1 ^ Adair, Bill; Kenny, Moira; and Samudio, Jeffrey B. , 2000, Los Angeles Gay and Lesbian History Tour (single folded sheet with text). Center for Preservation Education and Planning. ISBN 0-964-8304-7-7
  2. 2 ^ a b c d Faderman, Lillian and Timmons, Stuart (2006). Gay L.A.: a History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics, and Lipstick Lesbians. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-02288-5
1968WorldwideProtests of 1968The protests that raged throughout 1968 were for the most part student-led. Worldwide, campuses became the front-line battle grounds for social change. While opposition to the Vietnam War dominated the protests, students also protested for civil liberties, against racism, for feminism, and the beginnings of the Ecology movement can be traced to the protests against nuclear and biological weapons during this year.[22]
1970–81FranceLarzacIn response to an expansion of a military base, local farmers including José Bové and other supporters including Lanza del Vasto took part in nonviolent resistance. The military expansion was canceled after ten years of resistance.
1979IranIranian RevolutionThe Iranian Revolution of 1979 or 1979 Revolution (often known as the Islamic Revolution), refers to events involving the overthrow of Iran's monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.[23]
1980–presentPolandSolidarity
Orange Alternative
Solidarity, a broad anti-communist social movement ranging from people associated with the Roman Catholic Church to members of the anti-communist Left, advocated non-violence in its members' activities. Additionally, the Orange Alternative offered a wider group of citizens an alternative way of opposition against the authoritarian regime by means of a peaceful protest that used absurd and nonsensical elements.[24][25][26]
1986PhilippinesPeople Power RevolutionA series of nonviolent and prayerful mass street demonstrations that toppled Ferdinand Marcos and placed Corazon C. Aquino into power. After an election which had been condemned by the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines, over two million Filipinos protested human rights violations, election fraud, massive political corruption, and other abuses of the Marcos regime. Yellow was a predominant theme, the colour being associated with Corazon Aquino and her husband, Benigno S. Aquino, Jr., who was assassinated three years prior.
1987–90The Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia)Singing RevolutionA cycle of mass demonstrations featuring spontaneous singing in The Baltic States. The movement eventually collected 4,000,000 people who sang national songs and hymns, which were strictly forbidden during the years of the Soviet occupation of the Baltic States, as local rock musicians played. In later years, people acted as human shields to protect radio and TV stations from the Soviet tanks, eventually regaining Lithuania's, Latvia's, and Estonia's independence without any bloodshed.[27]
1989CzechoslovakiaVelvet RevolutionDuring the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, the Czechoslovak citizens responded to the attack on their sovereignty with passive resistance. Russian troops were frustrated as street signs were painted over, their water supplies mysteriously shut off, and buildings decorated with flowers, flags, and slogans like, "An elephant cannot swallow a hedgehog."
1989–90East GermanyMonday demonstrations in East GermanyThe Monday demonstrations in East Germany in 1989 and 1990 (German: Montagsdemonstrationen) were a series of peaceful political protests against the authoritarian government of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) of East Germany that took place every Monday evening.
1990–91Azerbaijan SSRBlack JanuaryA crackdown of Azeri protest demonstrations by the Red Army in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR. The demonstrators protested against ethnic violence, demanded the ousting of communist officials and called for independence from the Soviet Union.
2000SerbiaOtpor!Otpor! (English: Resistance!) was a civic youth movement that existed as such from 1998 until 2003 in Serbia (then a federal unit within FR Yugoslavia), employing nonviolent struggle against the regime of Slobodan Milošević as their course of action. In the course of two-year nonviolent struggle against Milosevic, Otpor spread across Serbia and attracted more than 70,000 supporters. They were credited for their role in the successful overthrow of Slobodan Milošević on 5 October 2000.
LiberiaWomen of Liberia Mass Action for PeaceThis peace movement, started by women praying and singing in a fish market, brought an end to the Second Liberian Civil War in 2003.
2004–05IsraelIsrael's unilateral disengagement plan of 2004Protesters opposing Israel's unilateral disengagement plan of 2004 nonviolently resisted impending evacuations of Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Protesters blocked several traffic intersections, resulting in massive gridlock and delays throughout Israel. While Israeli police had received advance notice of the action, opening traffic intersections proved extremely difficult. Eventually, over 400 demonstrators were arrested, including many juveniles. Further large demonstrations planned to commence when Israeli authorities, preparing for disengagement, cut off access to the Gaza Strip. During the confrontation, mass civil disobedience failed to emerge in Israel proper. However, some settlers and their supporters resisted evacuation non-violently.
2004–2005UkraineOrange RevolutionA series of protests and political events that took place in Ukraine in the immediate aftermath of the run-off vote of the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election which was marred by massive corruption, voter intimidation and direct electoral fraud. Nationwide, the democratic revolution was highlighted by a series of acts of civil disobedience, sit-ins, and general strikes organized by the opposition movement.
2005LebanonCedar RevolutionA chain of demonstrations in Lebanon (especially in the capital Beirut) triggered by the assassination of the former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on February 14, 2005.
2010Israel-Palestine AuthorityPalestinian Protests in West BankA "White Intifada" has begun to take hold in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Weekly protests by Peaceful Palestinian activities accompanied by B'Tselem ( the Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories) in addition to Israel academics and students against settlers and security forces. The EU through its foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton has criticised the peaceful movement and is she was deeply concerned about the arrest of Abdullah Abu Rahmeh. There have been two fatalities among protesters and an American peace activist suffered brain damage after being hit by a tear gas canister[28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33]
2011Tunisia2010–2011 Tunisian uprisingA chain of demonstrations against unemployment and government corruption in Tunisia. Protests were triggered by the self-immolation of the vegetable seller Mohamed Bouazizi and resulted in the 24-year-ruling president Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali fleeing the country a month later.
2011Egypt2011 Egyptian protestsstarted at 25 january 2011 ,http://www.6april.org/
2011Syria2011 Syrian uprisingstarted on March 15, 2011 as a collaborative effort between online websites such as Liberty For The People of Syria {الحرية لشعب سوريا}, The Syrian Revolution 2011, The Syrian Days of Rage {يوم الغضب السوري}, and some other media websites that facilitated the coordination and communication of Syrians on the grounds who were deprived from any local organizing bodies due to the country's 48-year old state of emergency that was instated in 1963 upon the takeover of power by Al-Ba'ath Arab Socialist Party and that was later taken over by the Assad regime in November 16, 1970. Since then, Syrians have experienced very minimal political life and virtually no exercise of freedom of expression until the Syrian revolution erupted, launching the most significant coordinated campaign of civil disobedience and peaceful protests in various Syrian cities. The response by the regime was and continue to be very brutal and has caused the death of hundreds of Syrian citizens and more than a thousand wounded in addition to thousands of people arbitrarily detained in a government campaign to quell the rebellion but it is only growing stronger by the day. The future of the Syrian revolution remains uncertain but one thing that has been certain thus far is its civil nature despite the elaborate media campaign by the ruling Assad regime to defame and attack the rebellion.
2011USAOccupy Wall Streethttp://www.occupytogether.org/ As more and more information becomes available (both good and bad), a good place to start would be at the source by visiting the Occupy Wall Street http://www.occupywallst.org/. Other first steps to informing yourself include The New York General Assembly http://www.nycga.net/ and their official http://www.occupywallst.org/ page. You can also visit their Youtube channel for a daily video from NYC. http://www.youtube.com/occupytvny

See also

Publications

Notes and references

  1. ^ "A Force More Powerful". A Force More Powerful. 2010-07-01. http://www.aforcemorepowerful.org/game/index.php. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  2. ^ Diamond, Jared (1997) (book). Guns, germs, and steel: the fates of human societies. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 53. ISBN 9780393038910. http://books.google.com/books?id=kLKTa_OeoNIC&pg=PA53&dq=The+Moriori. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  3. ^ (book) Transactions and proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. New Zealand Institute.. 1902. p. 124. http://books.google.com/books?id=gXcYAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA123&dq=The+Moriori#PPA124,M1. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  4. ^ Rawlings-Way, Charles (2008) (book). New Zealand. Lonely Planet. p. 686. ISBN 9781741048162. http://books.google.com/books?id=loeJXTt7Rj0C&pg=PA683&dq=chatham+island#PPA686,M1. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  5. ^ Littell, Eliakim; Littell, Robert (1846). The Living Age. Littell, Son and Co.. p. 410. http://books.google.com/books?id=z4EfAAAAYAAJ&printsec=titlepage#PPA410,M1. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  6. ^ Capadose, Henry (1845). Sixteen Years in the West Indies. T.C. Newby. http://www.nalis.gov.tt/Festivals/EmancipationDay_EyewitnessAccount.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  7. ^ "Resistance to conscription - Maori and the First World War | NZHistory.net.nz, New Zealand history online". Nzhistory.net.nz. 2007-07-17. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/maori-in-first-world-war/resistence-to-conscription. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  8. ^ James Cowan, The New Zealand Wars: A History of the Maori Campaigns and the Pioneering Period: Volume II, 1922, page 478.
  9. ^ The Legacy of Parihaka
  10. ^ McCarthy, Ronald; Sharp, Gene; Bennett, Brad (1997) (book). Nonviolent action: a research guide. Taylor & Francis. p. 342. ISBN 9780815315773. http://books.google.com/books?id=XYK6uvOnoOMC&printsec=frontcover#PPA342,M1. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  11. ^ Powers, Roger; Vogele, William; Kruegler, Christopher (1997) (book). Protest, Power, and Change. Taylor & Francis. p. 314. ISBN 9780815309130. http://books.google.com/books?id=jlRHZdWJlV4C&printsec=frontcover#PRA1-PA314,M1. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  12. ^ "Why Did Mao, Nehru and Tagore Applaud the March First Movement?". Korea Focus. http://www.koreafocus.or.kr/design2/layout/content_print.asp?group_id=102423. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  13. ^ Hopkinson, Michael (2004) (book). The Irish War of Independence. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 13. ISBN 9780773528406. http://books.google.com/books?id=5e-uI55WN-gC&printsec=frontcover#PPA13,M1. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  14. ^ Nashville Student Movemen ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans
  15. ^ Arsenault, Raymond (2006) (book). Freedom Riders. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195136746. http://books.google.com/books?id=AeU-m7YHL6oC&dq=Freedom+Riders:+1961+and+the+Struggle+for+Racial+Justice&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl=en&ei=75ALSsiVJoiSswPF67HmAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7#PPP1,M1. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 
  16. ^ Garrison, Dee (2006) (book). Bracing for Armageddon: why civil defense never worked. Oxford University Press US. p. 89. ISBN 9780195183191. http://books.google.com/books?id=n2aAnqDxSBQC&printsec=frontcover#PPA89,M1. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  17. ^ Knopf, Jeffrey W. (1998) (book). Domestic society and international cooperation. Cambridge University Press. pp. 122–123. ISBN 9780521626910. http://books.google.com/books?id=c01Xs99026UC&printsec=frontcover#PPA122,M1. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  18. ^ Bennett, Scott (2003) (book). Radical pacifism. Syracuse University Press. pp. 235–236. ISBN 9780815630036. http://books.google.com/books?id=wDJ5vXmgyRgC&printsec=frontcover#PPA235,M1. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  19. ^ "Guillermo Fariñas ends seven-month-old hunger strike for Internet access". Reporters Without Borders. 1 September 2006. http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=16397. 
  20. ^ "Amnesty International USA’s Medical Action". http://cubacenter.org/en/get-involved/urgent-action. 
  21. ^ Pérez, José Luis García (2005) (book). Boitel vive: Testimonio desde el actual presidio político cubano. Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung. pp. p7. ISBN 9789872112936. http://www.cadal.org/english/nota.asp?id_nota=1007. Retrieved 2009-05-09çç13. 
  22. ^ Rootes, Christopher. "1968 and the Environmental Movement in Europe." [1]. Retrieved 02-2008.
  23. ^ http://www.iss.co.za/pubs/Books/AchievSec_Dec04/Martin.pdf
  24. ^ Steger, Manfred B (January 2004) (ebook). Judging Nonviolence: The Dispute Between Realists and Idealists. Routledge (UK). pp. p114. ISBN 0-415-93397-8. http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&visbn=0415933978&id=VEcHo6QcIUwC&pg=PA114&lpg=PA114&dq=Solidarity+Poland+nonviolence&sig=GWuOXmZbZewMdElsBsmhZh7uTFY. Retrieved 2006-07-09. 
  25. ^ Paul Wehr, Guy Burgess, Heidi Burgess, ed (February 1993) (ebook). Justice Without Violence. Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. p28. ISBN 1-55587-491-6. http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&visbn=1555874916&id=o8ipY9HVHmcC&dq=Solidarity+Poland+nonviolence&lpg=PA29&pg=PA28&sig=ot7HF0E-YXDJQ8_zMpuVSuvl8Ig. Retrieved 2006-07-06. 
  26. ^ Cavanaugh-O'Keefe, John (January 2001) (ebook). Emmanuel, Solidarity: God's Act, Our Response. Xlibris Corporation. pp. p68. ISBN 0-7388-3864-0. http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&. Retrieved 2006-07-06. 
  27. ^ "Summary/Observations - The 2006 State of World Liberty Index: Free People, Free Markets, Free Thought, Free Planet". Stateofworldliberty.org. http://www.stateofworldliberty.org/report/results.html. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  28. ^ "EU rebukes Israel for convicting Palestinian protester". BBC News. 2010-08-26. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-11099394. 
  29. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jamal-dajani/deporting-gandhi-from-pal_b_540270.html
  30. ^ "Palestinians test out Gandhi-style protest". BBC News. 2010-04-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/8618868.stm. 
  31. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/joseph-dana/criminalizing-peaceful-pr_b_693657.html
  32. ^ http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/west-bank-arrest-violated-international-law-palestinian-claims-1.357812
  33. ^ http://josephdana.com/2010/08/criminalizing-peaceful-protest-israel-jails-another-palestinian-gandhi/

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