Friday, August 31, 2012


NHAHA Conference Press Release

To: Black Emergency Managers Association
Date: August 30, 2012
August 24, 2012

The National Haitian American Health Alliance (NHAHA) will be conducting its 9th annual health conference on Thursday October 18 and Friday October 19, 2012. This will be the first year NHAHA is holding its conference in Washington D.C. and for this occasion we are inviting National and International Organizations, Universities, Schools of Public Health, Health Care Professionals and Government Agencies to participate in this event.
The topic of the conference is: Globalization and Health Equity Policy: A Framework for 21st Century Haiti. NHAHA’s 9th annual conference will use the context of Haiti to examine policies relative to achieving health equity, and what steps need to be taken to refocus on policies that address disparities and inequalities in the United States and globally.

Conference Location: Catholic University of America | Washington, D.C.
Please use the attached flyer to share and promote the NHAHA Conference throughout your professional and personal networks. The mission of the National Haitian Health Alliance (NHAHA) is to improve the health and welfare of Haitians by enhancing communication, promoting and facilitating collaborative projects and fostering cooperative relationships among similar organizations through coordinated resource and information sharing, advocacy, capacity building and education.
For media information contact:

(866) 678-8905

For promotion and general distribution through your personal and professional networks.

Buffalo Soldier. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Buffalo Soldiers
Buffalo soldiers1.jpg
Buffalo Soldiers of the 25th Infantry Regiment, 1890
Allegiance United States of America
BranchUnited States Department of the Army Seal.svg United States Army
TypeInfantry & cavalry
NicknameBuffalo Soldiers
EngagementsAmerican Indian Wars
Banana Wars
Spanish-American War
Philippine-American War
Border War
World War I
World War II
Buffalo Soldiers originally were members of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regimentof the United States Army, formed on September 22, 1866 at Fort Leavenworth,Kansas.
The nickname was given to the "Negro Cavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought; the term eventually became synonymous with all of the African-American regiments formed in 1866:
Although several African-American regiments were raised during the Civil Warto fight alongside the Union Army (including the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry and the many United States Colored Troops Regiments), the "Buffalo Soldiers" were established by Congress as the first peacetime all-black regiments in the regular U.S. Army.[1]
On September 6, 2005, Mark Matthews, who was the oldest living Buffalo Soldier, died at the age of 111. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.[2]




Sources disagree on how the nickname "Buffalo Soldiers" began. According to the Buffalo Soldiers National Museum, the name 
originated with the Cheyenne warriors in the winter of 1877, the actual Cheyenne translation being "Wild Buffalo." However, writer Walter Hill 
documented the account of Colonel Benjamin Grierson, who founded the 10th Cavalry regiment, recalling an 1871 campaign against
Comanches. Hill attributed the origin of the name to the Comanche due to Grierson's assertions. Some sources assert that the nickname 
was given out of respect for the fierce fighting ability of the 10th Cavalry.[3] Other sources assert that Native Americans called the black 
cavalry troops "buffalo soldiers" because of their dark curly hair, which resembled a buffalo's coat.[4] Still other sources point to a 
combination of both legends.[5] The term Buffalo Soldiers became a generic term for all African-American soldiers. It is now used for 
U.S. Army units that trace their direct lineage back to the 9th and 10th Cavalry units whose service earned them an honored place in U.S. 
In September 1867, Private John Randall of Troop G of the 10th Cavalry Regiment was assigned to escort two civilians on a hunting trip. 
The hunters suddenly became the hunted when a band of 70 Cheyenne warriors swept down on them. The two civilians quickly fell in the
initial attack and Randall's horse was shot out from beneath him. Randall managed to scramble to safety behind a washout under the 
railroad tracks, where he fended off the attack with only his pistol until help from the nearby camp arrived. The Indians beat a hasty retreat, 
leaving behind 13 fallen warriors. Private Randall suffered a gunshot wound to his shoulder and 11 lance wounds, but recovered. 
The Cheyenne quickly spread word of this new type of soldier, "who had fought like a cornered buffalo; who like a buffalo had suffered 
wound after wound, yet had not died; and who like a buffalo had a thick and shaggy mane of hair."[6][7]


During the American Civil War, the U.S. government formed regiments known as the United States Colored Troops,
composed of black soldiers. After the war, Congress reorganized the Army and authorized the formation of two regiments of black cavalry 
with the designations 9th and 10th U.S. Cavalry, and four regiments of black infantry, designated the 38th39th40th and 41st Infantry 
Regiments (Colored). The 38th and 41st were reorganized as the 25th Infantry Regiment, with headquarters in Jackson Barracks in 
New Orleans, Louisiana, in November 1869. The 39th and 40th were reorganized as the 24th Infantry Regiment, with headquarters at 
Fort ClarkTexas, in April 1869. All of these units were composed of black enlisted men commanded by both white and black officers. 
These included the first commander of the 10th Cavalry Benjamin Grierson, the first commander of the 9th Cavalry Edward Hatch
Medal of Honor recipient Louis H. Carpenter, the unforgettable Nicholas M. Nolan, and the first black graduate of West Point

[edit]Indian Wars

From 1866 to the early 1890s, these regiments served at a variety of posts in the Southwestern United States and the Great Plainsregions. 
They participated in most of the military campaigns in these areas and earned a distinguished record. Thirteen enlisted men and six officers 
from these four regiments earned the Medal of Honor during the Indian Wars. In addition to the military campaigns, the "Buffalo Soldiers" 
served a variety of roles along the frontier from building roads to escorting the U.S. mail. On 17 April 1875, regimental headquarters for the 
9th and 10th Cavalries were transferred to Fort Concho, Texas. Companies actually arrived at Fort Concho in May 1873. At various times 
from 1873 through 1885, Fort Concho housed 9th Cavalry companies A–F, K, and M, 10th Cavalry companies A, D–G, I, L, and M, 24th 
Infantry companies D–G, and K, and 25th Infantry companies G and K.[8]
Buffalo Soldier in the 9th Cavalry, 1890
A lesser known action was the 9th Cavalry's participation in the fabled Johnson County War, an 1892 land war in Johnson CountyWyoming between small farmers and large, wealthy ranchers. It culminated in a lengthy shootout between local farmers, a band of hired killers, and a sheriff's posse. The 6th Cavalry was ordered in by President Benjamin Harrison to quell the violence and capture the band of hired killers. Soon afterward, however, the 9th Cavalry was specifically called on to replace the 6th. The 6th Cavalry was swaying under the local political and social pressures and was unable to keep the peace in the tense environment.
The Buffalo Soldiers responded within about two weeks from Nebraska, and moved the men to the rail town of Suggs,Wyoming, creating "Camp Bettens" despite a racist and hostile local population. One soldier was killed and two wounded in gun battles with locals. Nevertheless, the 9th Cavalry remained in Wyoming for nearly a year to quell tensions in the area.[9][10]


Buffalo Soldiers who participated in the Spanish American War
After most of the Indian Wars ended in the 1890s, the regiments continued to serve and participated in the 1898 Spanish-American War (including the Battle of San Juan Hill) inCuba, where five more Medals of Honor were earned.[11][12]
The regiments took part in the Philippine-American War from 1899 to 1903 and the 1916Mexican Expedition.[11][12]
In 1918 the 10th Cavalry fought at the Battle of Ambos Nogales in the First World War, where they assisted in forcing the surrender of the federal Mexican and Germanforces.[11][12]
Buffalo soldiers fought in the last engagement of the Indian Wars; the small Battle of Bear Valley in southern Arizona which occurred in 1918 between U.S. cavalry and Yaquinatives.[11][12]

[edit]Park Rangers

Another little-known contribution of the Buffalo Soldiers involved eight troops of the 9th Cavalry Regiment and one company of the 24th Infantry Regiment who served in California's Sierra Nevada as some of the first national park rangers. In 1899, 
Buffalo Soldiers from Company H, 24th Infantry Regiment briefly served in Yosemite National ParkSequoia National Park and General 
Grant (Kings Canyon) National Parks.[13]
U.S. Army regiments had been serving in these national parks since 1891, but until 1899 the soldiers serving were white. Beginning in 1899, 
and continuing in 1903 and 1904, African-American regiments served during the summer months in the second and third oldest national 
parks in the United States (Sequoia and Yosemite). Because these soldiers served before the National Park Service was created (1916), 
they were "park rangers" before the term was coined.
A lasting legacy of the soldiers as park rangers is the Ranger Hat (popularly known as the Smokey Bear Hat). Although not officially 
adopted by the Army until 1911, the distinctive hat crease, called a Montana Peak, (or pinch) can be seen being worn by several of the 
Buffalo Soldiers in park photographs dating back to 1899. Soldiers serving in the Spanish American War began to recrease the Stetson 
hat with a Montana "pinch" to better shed water from the torrential tropical rains. Many retained that distinctive "pinch" upon their return 
to the U.S. The park photographs, in all likelihood, show Buffalo Soldiers who were veterans from that 1898 war.
One particular Buffalo Soldier stands out in history: Captain Charles Young who served with Troop "I", 9th Cavalry Regiment in Sequoia 
National Park during the summer of 1903. Charles Young was the third African American to graduate from the United States Military 
Academy. At the time of his death, he was the highest ranking African American in the U.S. military. He made history in Sequoia National 
Park in 1903 by becoming Acting Military Superintendent of Sequoia and General Grant National Parks. Charles Young was also the 
first African American superintendent of a national park. During Young's tenure in the park, he named a Giant Sequoia for
Booker T. Washington. Recently, another Giant Sequoia in Giant Forest was named in Captain Young's honor. Some of Young's 
descendants were in attendance at the ceremony.[14]
Buffalo Soldiers National Museum inHoustonTexas
In 1903, 9th Cavalrymen in Sequoia built the first trail to the top of Mount Whitney, the highest mountain in the contiguous United States. They also built the first wagon road into Sequoia's Giant Forest, the most famous grove of Giant Sequoia trees in Sequoia National Park.
In 1904, 9th Cavalrymen in Yosemite built an arboretum on the South Fork of the Merced River in the southern section of Yosemite National Park. This arboretum had pathways and benches, and some plants were identified in both English and Latin. Yosemite's arboretum is considered to be the first museum in the National Park System. The NPS cites a 1904 report, where Yosemite superintentent (Lt. Col.) John Bigelow, Jr. declared the arboretum "To provide a great museum of nature for the general public free of cost ..." Unfortunately, the forces of developers, miners and greed cut the boundaries of Yosemite in 1905 and the arboretum was nearly destroyed.[15]
In the Sierra Nevada, the Buffalo Soldiers regularly endured long days in the saddle, slim rations, racism, and separation from family
 and friends. As military stewards, the African American cavalry and infantry regiments protected the national parks from illegal grazing,
poaching, timber thieves, and forest fires. Yosemite Park Ranger Shelton Johnson researched and interpreted the history in an 
attempt to recover and celebrate the contributions of the Buffalo Soldiers of the Sierra Nevada.[16]
In total, 23 "Buffalo Soldiers" received the Medal of Honor during the Indian Wars.[17]

[edit]West Point

Mark Matthews Cavalry Unit.jpg
On March 23, 1907, the United States Military Academy Detachment of Cavalry was changed to a "colored" unit. This had been a long time coming. It had been proposed in 1897 at the "Cavalry and Light Artillery School" at Fort Riley, Kansas that West Point Cadets learn their riding skills from the black non-commissioned officers who were considered the best. The one hundred man detachment from the 9th Cavalry served to teach future officers at West Point riding instruction, mounted drill and tactics until 1947.[18]

[edit]Systemic prejudice

The "Buffalo Soldiers" were often confronted with racial prejudice from other members of the U.S. Army. Civilians in the areas where the soldiers were stationed occasionally reacted to them with violence. Buffalo Soldiers were attacked during racial disturbances in Rio Grande City, Texas in 1899,[19]Brownsville, Texas in 1906,[20] and Houston, Texas in 1917.[21][22]
General of the Armies John J. Pershing is a controversial figure regarding the Buffalo Soldiers. He served with the 10th Cavalry from October 1895 to May 1897. He served again with them for less than six months in Cuba. Because he saw the "Buffalo Soldiers" as good soldiers, he was looked down upon and called "Nigger Jack" by white cadets and officers at West Point. It was only later 
during the Spanish-American War that the press changed that insulting term to "Black Jack." [23] During World War I Pershing bowed to the 
its "separate but equal" philosophy. For the first time in American history, Pershing allowed American soldiers (African-Americans) to be 
under the command of a foreign power.[n 1]

[edit]World War I

The Buffalo Soldiers did not participate with the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) during World War I, but experienced 
non-commissioned officers were provided to other segregated black units for combat service—such as the 317th Engineer Battalion
The Soldiers of the 92nd Infantry Division (United States) and the 93rd Infantry Division (United States) were the first Black Americans to 
fight in France. The four regiments of 93rd fought under French command for the duration of the war.
In August 1918, the 10th Cavalry supported the 35th Infantry Regiment in a border skirmish, the Battle of Ambos Nogales, in which German 
military advisors fought along with Mexican soldiers. This was the only battle during World War I where Germans engaged and died in 
combat against United States soldiers in North America.
The 35th Infantry Regiment was stationed at Nogales, Arizona on August 27, 1918, when at about 4:10 PM, a gun battle erupted 
unintentionally when a Mexican civilian attempted to pass through the border, back to Mexico, without being interrogated at the 
U.S. Customs house. After the initial shooting, reinforcements from both sides rushed to the border. For the Americans, the 
reinforcements were the 10th Cavalry, off duty 35th Regimental soldiers and milita. Hostilities quickly escalated and several soldiers 
were killed and others wounded on both sides. A cease fire was arranged later after the US forces took the heights south of Nogales.[12][24][25]

[edit]World War II

With colors flying and guidons down, the lead troops of the famous 9th Cavalry pass in review at the regiment's new home in rebuilt Camp FunstonFt. Riley, Kansas, May 1941.
Prior to WW2, the black 25th Infantry Regt was based at Ft Huachuca Arizona. During the war, Ft Huachuca served as the home base of the Black 92nd and 93rd Infantry Divisions. The 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments were essentially disbanded and the soldiers were moved into service-oriented units, along with the entire 2nd Cavalry Division. The 92nd Infantry Division, AKA the "Buffalo Division", served in combat during the Italian Campaign. The 93rd Infantry Division—including the 25th Infantry Regiment— served in the Pacific theater.[26] Separately, independent Black Artillery, Tank and Tank Destroyer Battalions as well as Quartermaster & support battalions served in WW2. All of these units to a degree carried on the traditions of the "Buffalo Soldiers".
Despite some official resistance and administrative barriers, black airmen were trained and played a part in the air war in Europe, gaining a reputation for skill and bravery (seeTuskegee Airmen). In early 1945, after the Battle of the Bulge, American forces in Europe experienced a shortage of combat troops so the embargo on using black soldiers in combat units was relaxed. The American Military History says:
Faced with a shortage of infantry replacements during the enemy's counteroffensive,General Eisenhower offered Negro soldiers in service units an opportunity to volunteer for duty with the infantry. More than 4,500 responded,many taking
reductions in grade in order to meet specified requirements. The 6th Army Group formed these men into
 provisional companies, while the 12th Army Group employed them as an additional platoon in existing rifle companies.
 The excellent record established by these volunteers, particularly those serving as platoons, presaged major postwar changes in the 

traditional approach to employing Negro troops.

[edit]Korean War and integration

Buffalo Soldier Monument on Fort LeavenworthKansas
The 24th Infantry Regiment saw combat during the Korean War and was the last segregated regiment to engage in combat. The 24th was deactivated in 1951, and its soldiers were integrated into other units in Korea. On December 12, 1951, the last Buffalo Soldier units, the 27th Cavalry and the 28th (Horse) Cavalry, were disbanded. The 28th Cavalry was inactivated at Assi-Okba, Algeria in April 1944 in North Africa, and marked the end of the regiment.[27]
There are monuments to the Buffalo Soldiers in Kansas at Fort Leavenworth and Junction City.[28] Then-Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell, who initiated the project to get a statue to honor the Buffalo Soldiers when he was posted as a brigadier general to Fort Leavenworth, was guest speaker for the unveiling of the Fort Leavenworth monument in July 1992.


In the last decade, the employment of the Buffalo Soldiers by the United States Army in theIndian Wars has led a few historians to call for the "critical reappraisal" of the "Negroregiments." In this viewpoint, shared by a small minority,[29] the 
Buffalo Soldiers were used as mere shock troops or accessories to the forcefully-expansionist goals of the U.S.government at the 
expense of the Native Americans and other minorities.[29][30]



  • The song and music of Soul Saga (Song Of The Buffalo Soldier) has had several renditions. In 1974, it was produced by Quincy Jones 
  • in the album Body Heat.[31] In 1975, the album Symphonic Soul contained another variation and was released by Henry Mancini
  • and his Orchestra.[32]
  • The song "Buffalo Soldier", co-written by Bob Marley and King Sporty, first appeared on the 1983 album Confrontation. Many
  • Jamaicans, especially Rastafarians like Marley, identified with the "Buffalo Soldiers" as an example of black men who performed 
  • with exceeding courage, honor, valor, and distinction in a field that was dominated by whites and persevered despite endemic 
  • racism and prejudice.[33]


Buffalo Soldier Memorial of El Paso, inFort Bliss, depicting CPL John Ross, I Troop, 9th Cavalry, during an encounter in theGuadalupe Mountains during the Indian Wars
  • The 1960 Western film Sergeant Rutledge, starring Woody Strode, tells the story of the trial of a 19th-century black Army non-commissioned officer falsely accused of rape and murder. One of the characters narrates the history of the term "buffalo soldier". The movie's theme song, titled Captain Buffalo, was written by Mack David and Jerry Livingston.[38]
  • Rawhide (TV series): Incident of the Buffalo Soldier, Season 3, Episode 10, aired Jan. 06, 1961. A Buffalo soldier is falsely accused of murder when it was self-defense. When a Rawhide regular is wounded the accused Buffalo Soldier brings him to safety but gets killed under a shoot on sight order.[39]
  • Rawhide (TV series): Incident at Seven Fingers, Season 6, Episode 30, Aired May 07, 1964. A top sergeant of Troop F, 110th Cavalry Regiment is accused of being a coward and a deserter. Other Buffalo Soldiers and an officer track him down. The Rawhide trail boss figures out that the sergeant is trying to protect the honor of his Captain who is suffering blackouts from a previous head wound. Honor and respect is restored.[40]
  • On November 22, 1968, an episode of the television series The High Chaparral titled "The Buffalo Soldiers", starring Yaphet Kotto
  • paid tribute to the soldier's patriotic spirit.
  • The 1970 television film Carter's Army (also known as the Black Brigade), starring Stephen BoydRosey Grier and Richard Pryor
  • depicted a black unit during World War II, led by a white officer.
  • The 1979 television film Buffalo Soldiers, starring Stan Shaw and John Beck, depicted African-American cavalry soldiers and 
  • their actions in the West during the Indian Wars of the late 19th century.
  • The 1997 television film Buffalo Soldiers, starring Danny Glover, drew attention to their role in the military history of the United States.
  • The 2006 History Channel special "Honor Deferred" describe members of the Buffalo soldiers in WWII Italy.
  • The film Miracle at St. Anna, directed by Spike Lee, chronicles the Buffalo Soldiers who served in the invasion of Italy. 
  • It is based on the novel of the same name by James McBride.

[edit]Video games

[edit]See also

Buffalo Soldier Monument at F. E. Warren Air Force Base near Cheyenne, Wyoming


  1. ^ Pershing was a first lieutenant and took command of a troop of the 10th Cavalry Regiment in October 1895. In 1897, Pershing became an instructor at West Point, where he joined the tactical staff. While at West Point, cadets upset over Pershing's harsh treatment and high standards took to calling him "Nigger Jack," in reference to his service with the 10th Cavalry.1 This was softened (or sanitized) to the more euphonic"Black Jack" by reporters covering Pershing during World War I.2 At the start of the Spanish-American War, First Lieutenant Pershing was offered a brevet rank and commissioned a major of volunteers on August 26, 1898. He fought with the 10th Cavalry (Buffalo Soldiers) on Kettle and San Juan Hill in Cubaand was cited for gallantry. During World War I General Pershing exercised significant control over the American Expeditionary Force. He had a full delegation of authority fromPresident of the United States Woodrow Wilson and Secretary of War Newton D. Baker. Baker, cognizant of the endless problems of domestic and allied political involvement in military decision making in wartime, gave Pershing unmatched authority to run his command as he saw fit. In turn, Pershing exercised his prerogative carefully, not engaging in issues that might distract or diminish his command. While earlier a champion of the African-American soldier, he did not champion their full participation on the battlefield, bowing to widespread racial attitudes among white Americans, plus Wilson's reactionary racial views and the political debts he owed to southern "separate but equal" Democratic law makers.3


  1. ^ Chap. CCXCIX. 14 Stat. 332 from "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U. S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774 - 1875"Library of CongressLaw Library of Congress. Retrieved March 26, 2012.
  2. ^ Shaughnessy, Larry (September 19, 2005), "Oldest Buffalo Soldier to be Buried at Arlington"CNN, retrieved 2007-04-24
  3. ^ Brief History (Buffalo Soldiers National Museum), 2008, retrieved 2009-11-30
  4. ^ National Park Service (PDF), Buffalo Soldiers, archived from the original on 2007-01-04, retrieved 2007-05-01
  5. ^ The Smithsonian Institution, The Price of Freedom: Printable Exhibition, retrieved 2007-05-01
  6. ^ 7-10 Cav Global which references “ (Starr 1981:46).”
  7. ^ "Official 4ID History 4th Infantry Division Homepage: History". United States Army. 02-08-2010.
  8. ^ Fort Concho National Historic Landmark, San Angelo, TX: Fort Concho NHL, retrieved 2 January 2009
  9. ^ Fields, Elizibeth Arnett. Historic Contexts for the American Military Experience
  10. ^ Schubert, Frank N. "The Suggs Affray: The Black Cavalry in the Johnson County War". The Western Historical Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 1 (January, 1973), pp. 57–68.
  11. a b c d "10th Cavalry Squadron History". US Army.
  12. a b c d e Finley, James P. Huachuca Illustrated Vol. 2 Part 5, Buffalo Soldiers at Huachuca: Yaqui Fight in Bear Valley. Library of Congress 1996, ISBN 93-206790
  13. ^ Johnson, Shelton Invisible Men: Buffalo Soldiers of the Sierra Nevada. Park Histories: Sequoia NP (and Kings Canyon NP), National Parks Service. Retrieved: 2007-05-18.
  14. ^ Leckie, William H. (1967), The Buffalo Soldiers: A Narrative of the Negro Cavalry in the West, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, LCCN 67-15571
  15. ^ Wallis, O. L. (September 1951), "Yosemite's Pioneer Arboreetum"Yosemite Nature Notes (Yosimite Natural History Association, Inc.) XXX, Number 9: pp. 83, retrieved 2010-05-05
  16. ^ Johnson, Shelton, Shadows in the Range of Light, retrieved 2007-04-24
  17. ^ "Medal of Honor Recipients: Indian Wars Period".
  18. ^ Buckley, Gail Lumet (14 May 2002). American Patriots: The Story of Blacks in the Military from the Revolution to Desert Storm. Random House Digital, Inc.. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-375-76009-9. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  19. ^ Christian, Garna (August 17, 2001), Handbook of Texas Online: Rio Grande City, Texas, retrieved 2007-04-24
  20. ^ Christian, Garna (February 17, 2005), Handbook of Texas Online: Brownsville, Texas, retrieved 2007-04-24
  21. ^ Haynes, Robert (April 6, 2004), Handbook of Texas Online: Houston, Texas, retrieved 2007-04-24
  22. ^ The Officer Down Memorial Page (Police Officer Rufus E. Daniels), retrieved 2007-04-24
  23. a b Frank E. Vandiver, Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing – Volume I (Texas A&M University Press, Third printing, 1977) ISBN 0-89096-024-0 , 67.
  24. ^ Wharfield, Harold B., Colonel, USAF retired (1965), Tenth Cavalry and Border Fights, El Cajon, CA: self published, pp. 85–97
  25. ^ Clendenen, Clarence, Colonel (US Army retired) (1969), Blood on the Border; the United States Army and the Mexican irregulars, New York: Macmillan, ISBN 0-02-526110-X, 978-0025261105
  26. ^ Hargrove, Hondon B. (1985), Buffalo Soldiers in Italy: Black Americans in World War II, Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, ISBN 0-89950-116-8
  27. ^ The 28th Cavalry: The U.S. Army's Last Horse Cavalry Regiment, retrieved 2007-04-24
  28. ^ Services – Buffalo Soldier Monument, archived from the original on 2007-06-27, retrieved 2007-04-24
  29. a b The shame of the Buffalo Soldiers, retrieved 2007-07-24
  30. ^ The Buffalo Soldier of the West and the Elimination of the Native American Race, retrieved 2007-07-24
  31. ^ Soul Saga (Song of the Bufallo Soldier)Jones, Quincy, 1974, A&M. 1988, Album Body Heat. ASIN: B000W0248E
  32. ^ Soul Saga (Song of the Bufallo Soldier)Mancini, Henry, 1975, RCA CPL1-0672 (Quadraphonic) album Symphonic Soul."
  33. ^ Black Heretics, Black Prophets: Radical Political Intellectuals – Bogues, Anthony, Page 198, via Google Books.Accessed 2008-06-28.
  34. ^ "K'Naan feat. Chali 2na (of Jurassic 5), Chubb Rock, Damian Marley, Mos Def – 'Troubadour' (Audio CD) Detail – Underground Hip Hop – Store". Underground Hip Hop. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
  35. ^ 'Waving Flag' by K'naan on QTV
  36. ^ Buffalo SoldierThe Persuasions, 1971, Capitol Records. 1993, Album Street Corner Symphony. ASIN: B0000008N7
  37. ^ 'Buffalo Soldier' by The Persuasions on Discogs
  38. ^ IMDb. Sergeant Rutledge: Soundtrack.
  39. ^ See also: The Rawhide Trail. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  40. ^ See also: The Rawhide Trail. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  41. ^
  42. ^ Bak, Richard, Editor. "The Rough Riders" by Theodore Roosevelt. Page 172. Taylor Publishing, 1997.
  43. ^ Frank E. Vandiver, Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing – Volume II (Texas A&M University Press, Third printing, 1977) ISBN 0-89096-024-0

[edit]External links


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