Thursday, March 14, 2013

Homeland Security Today: Hurricane Sandy. Unified Military Response.

EXCLUSIVE -- Dual-Status, Single Purpose: A Unified Military Response to Hurricane Sandy
March 11, 2013

By: Gen. Charles H. Jacoby, Jr., and Gen. Frank J. Grass

On the evening of October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy roared ashore and wreaked devastation upon the people and infrastructure of New York and New Jersey. It was the worst natural disaster to strike our shores since Hurricane Katrina ravaged the Gulf Coast. And while destructive, Sandy’s effects could have been much worse if not for the cooperative efforts of local leaders and first responders, the National Guard, the Department of Defense (DoD), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other state and federal agencies.

Even as long-term recovery efforts continue in the hardest hit communities of the Northeast, it is worth pausing to reflect on how our military forces performed in the response to Sandy, and in particular noting the success of the Dual-Status Commander concept that aligns both National Guard and federal military forces under a single leader.

To begin, Sandy reinforced a basic principle of domestic disaster response, and that is local civilian first responders remain the fastest and most effective forces available. Local police, firefighters, paramedics and government officials have the extraordinary responsibility to protect life and meet the immediate needs of its citizens while setting the stage for a long-term community recovery. Volunteers, non-profits, corporations and faith-based organizations also fill a critical role in helping people who have been impacted. These first responders and local volunteers may suffice in routine emergencies. However, in complex disasters like Hurricane Sandy, which may span multiple states and municipalities, the demands of the crisis have the potential to exceed local capacity to meet those needs. This is when our military must be ready to respond.

The National Guard, as the military’s first responders in most domestic disasters, provides the next layer of response, offering the governor a robust response force. National Guard forces enjoy tremendous acceptance and trust within their communities and are empowered by emergency management assistance compacts and other agreements that enable rapid sharing of capabilities between states. Finally, upon the governor’s request and approval of the President or Secretary of Defense, DoD forces operating under Title 10 may be introduced as an additional layer of response capabilities -- a “strategic reserve” to support lead federal agencies supporting state and local authorities.

This tiered and scalable response construct, as described in the National Response Framework, has served us well through several emergencies. But its bottom-up process for requesting military support can be too cumbersome and time-consuming in a large-scale, complex disaster. Which brings us to the second lesson:  we simply cannot be late to respond when our citizens are in danger.

If we wait until we receive a request before we start identifying and preparing our forces, they may not arrive in time to help. In a complex catastrophe, response time equates to potential human suffering. Yet, we also must respect the sovereignty and responsibility of state and local authorities. A top-down analysis of potential requests must be conducted and assets staged ahead of time so that we can respond quickly with relationships already built; processes practiced and honed by training and exercising together to save lives; and to help our communities get back to normal.
Even before Sandy made landfall, as states prepositioned first responders and National Guard forces -- and FEMA readied its assets -- thousands of active-duty and reserve DoD forces were placed on standby, positioned to rapidly respond when called. DoD coordinating officers were deployed to FEMA’s joint field offices to facilitate requests for federal military assistance. A joint support element was established at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst in New Jersey to serve as a forward staging point for relief supplies and personnel, and the USS Wasp Amphibious Ready Group began steaming towards the area to render assistance. Thanks to this forward-leaning stance, DoD forces stood ready to quickly assist National Guard forces in helping those who lay in Sandy’s destructive path.

The complexity of the Sandy relief efforts highlights a third lesson: the importance of establishing a clear chain of command that ensures operational unity of effort that achieves the balance between timeliness and respect for civil authority. In the midst of a complex catastrophe, with Title 32 National Guard forces from multiple states working alongside Title 10 active duty and reserve forces, there is a potential for confusion in the chain of command, which risks undermining unity of effort -- a key principle of military operational effectiveness. We simply cannot afford to have our military forces working at cross-purposes without effective coordination and synergy that could hamper time-critical search and rescue and lifesaving operations. Nor can we impose multiple uniformed voices on stressed federal, state and local civilian agencies.

Last year, Congress took a bold step to prevent such an occurrence. The 2012 National Defense Authorization Act built upon earlier legislation to enable individual states and DoD to coordinate their efforts through a single commander, usually a National Guard officer, who is given tactical control of both state-controlled National Guard forces and DoD military forces. While state and federal military forces maintain separate and distinct chains of command, this Dual-Status Commander leads all military forces and directs their response efforts, achieving a level of unity of effort that was unachievable or difficult prior to implementation of this construct.

During Hurricane Sandy, this unity of effort enabled much-needed assistance from DoD to move quickly to support states. For example, with the US Transportation Command we were able to move 262 power restoration vehicles and 429 support personnel from western states to New York and New Jersey. With the US Army Corps of Engineers we contributed 100 large pumps that were able to remove 475 million gallons of flood water from tunnels and basements. And with the Defense Logistics Agency, we helped distribute six million meals and 8.1 million gallons of unleaded and diesel fuel to the people of both states.

While the Dual-Status Commander construct was put in place for several small-scale emergencies such as the Colorado and California wildfires, and for key national-level events including the Republican and Democratic National Conventions, Hurricane Sandy marked the first time that actual tactical control of National Guard and DoD active and reserve forces was given to Dual-Status Commanders for a major, multi-state natural disaster. While this inaugural use of Dual-Status Commanders wasn’t flawless, in the end we can say with conviction that the concept works. It is simply the best command and control construct that exists for responding effectively and efficiently to complex disasters, because it can bring the full weight of the DoD response to the worst man-made or natural disasters while maintaining the authority of state and local governments.

Nobody knows a state better than its governor, the individual elected by the people and accountable to them during their time of greatest need. The governor, working with the National Guard adjutant general, will continue to lead disaster response and recovery efforts within their state. A Dual-Status Commander allows them to do it better by ensuring all types of DoD support work together within the governor’s intent. It allows the President and Secretary of Defense to bring the weight of unique DoD capabilities and national capacity to bear when our citizens most need it, and when the interests of the entire country are at stake. And, it allows US Northern Command to achieve its vision of working with partners to outpace threats and support the American people in their times of greatest need.

Although the Dual-Status Commander concept is relatively new, it has already proven itself to be a powerful tool for improving responsiveness, command and control, continuity of operations and unity of effort. Together, we will maintain an open dialog with the Council of Governors and state adjutants general to ensure the many lessons from Hurricane Sandy are indeed learned, incorporated into our planning, and battle-tested during complex disaster exercises.

When the next major disaster strikes, we will be even better prepared to serve the American people.

Gen. Charles H. Jacoby, Jr. is the Commander of the North American Aerospace Defense Command and US Northern Command. Gen. Frank J. Grass is Chief of the National Guard Bureau, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and former Deputy Commander of US Northern Command

March 21, 2013.. International Challenges and Opportunities: Law and Policy on Cybersecurity

GW horizontal

 International Challenges and Opportunities:  Law and Policy on Cybersecurity  

Please join the George Washington University Cybersecurity Initiative and the George Washington University Law School on March 21st for a conversation with leading subject matter experts on "International Challenges and Opportunities:  Law and Policy on Cybersecurity". Panelists will share thoughts on the best means and mechanisms for addressing gaps and shortfalls, from a range of perspectives -- U.S. and international, both public and private sector.

Graduate and undergraduate students in all disciplines are welcome, and encouraged to share their ideas and reactions.
Scott Charney  
Corporate Vice President,  
Trustworthy Computing, Microsoft 
 Ambassador, Embassy of Estonia
Christopher Painter
Coordinator for Cyber Issues, U.S. Department of State 

  Moderated by:   
  Frank J. Cilluffo  
 Director, Homeland Security Policy Institute 

Thursday, March 21st, 2013
3:30 pm until 5:00 pm 
 Reception to follow  

The George Washington University
Elliott School of International Affairs 
Seventh Floor | City View Room  
1957 E Street, NW
Washington, DC 20052 | Map It

Speaker Biographies:     

Scott Charney
is Corporate Vice President for Microsoft's Trustworthy Computing Group. Mr. Charney is responsible for a range of corporate programs that influence the security, privacy, and reliability of Microsoft's products, services, and internal networks. He also manages the Engineering Excellence Team, a group focused on promoting best-of-breed engineering practices and ensuring compliance with Microsoft's mandatory engineering policies. More 
Jason Healey is the director  
of the Cyber Statecraft Initiative of the Atlantic Council, focusing on international cooperation, competition and conflict in cyberspace. He also is a board member (and former executive director) of the Cyber Conflict Studies Association and lecturer in cyber policy at Georgetown University. He co-authored the book Cyber Security Policy Guidebook by Wiley and he is the editor for the first book ever on cyber conflict history (due in 2013). His ideas on cyber topics have been widely published in dozens of articles and essays published by the National Research Council; academic journals such as from Brown and Georgetown Universities; the Aspen Strategy Group and various think tanks. More 
    Marina Kaljurdand, Estonian Embassy
Marina Kaljurand
became Ambassador of Estonia to the United States on September 6, 2011.  Previous to this post she served as Undersecretary for Foreign Economic Relations and Development Aid in Estonia (2008-2011), non-resident Ambassador to the Republic of Kazakhstan (2007-2011), Ambassador to the Russian Federation (2005-2008), and Ambassador to Israel (2004-2006). Kaljurand also held the positions of Counselor at the Estonian Embassy in Helsinki, Undersecretary for Legal and Consular Affairs, Director General of Legal Department, Director of International Treaties Division, and 3rd Secretary of the Press and Information Department. More 

Christopher Painter, DoS Christopher Painter has been on the vanguard of cyber issues for twenty years. Most recently, Mr. Painter served in the White House as Senior Director for Cybersecurity Policy in the National Security Staff. During his two years at the White House, Mr. Painter was a senior member of the team that conducted the President's Cyberspace Policy Review and subsequently served as Acting Cybersecurity Coordinator. He coordinated the development of a forthcoming international strategy for cyberspace and chaired high-level interagency groups devoted to international and other cyber issues.More   

Youth Scientist Challenge 2013

Do you have some budding young scientists in your classroom? 

Discovery Education and 3M are looking for students in grades 5-8 who are enthusiastic about science. 

To enter the Young Scientist Challenge, students must create a 1-2 minute video describing a new innovation or solution that could solve or impact an everyday problem related to how we live, how we work or how we play. 

The top 10 students will receive a trip to the 3M Innovation Center in St. Paul, MN to compete for the chance to win $25,000!

Here is the Teachers Tools page for you to help your students get started right away. The contest ends April 23

The Black Emergency Managers Association International support(s) the Sustainable Development Goals

The Black Emergency Managers Association International support(s) the Sustainable Development Goals

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